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远程学院各系联盟 - 商务英语

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    跨文化商务交流》(英)

    teresa 2009-06-15 08:51

    《跨文化商务交流》() 期末考试大纲

    课程名称: ENG338a跨文化商务交流()

    考核方式: 开卷笔试

    复习范围:课件第1-12章,指定配套教材第1-10章:

    Intercultural business communication 《跨文化商务交际》窦卫霖编著, George W. Clerk & Michael Prosser审阅, 高等教育出版社, 2005.9

      

    试题形式

     

    I. True-False. Circle A if the statement is true; circle B if it is false. (判断各句是否正确,30题,11分, 40分)

    II. Multiple Choice.  Circle the letter corresponding to the correct response. (在所给的4个选项中选择一个最恰当的答案,30题,12分, 60分)

     

    期末复习思考题:

    Chapter 1 

    Introduction to Intercultural Communication

     

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this Chapter, you should be able to

    l          Define intercultural communication and intercultural business communication.

    l          Understand the importance of intercultural business communication.

    l          Briefly describe the developmental study of intercultural communication and its applications.

    l          Develop an awareness of the complexity involved with intercultural business communication.

    ExercisesT

    I. Discussion Questions:

    1.         What is intercultural communication (ICC)? Give examples to illustrate its different types.

    2.         What does it mean by the term intercultural business communication (ICBC)? Why is intercultural communication increasingly important in international business?

    3.         How was the study of intercultural communication developed both in America and in China?

    4.         What are the potential problems of intercultural communication? Have you ever experienced any intercultural communication barriers? If any, how did you deal with them?

    II.                    True or False:

    Write T if the statement is true; write F if it is false.

    1.         The terms intercultural and international can be used interchangeably.     T

    2.         International communication takes place between such groups as African Americans and Latin Americans.     F

    3.         Communication barriers are caused by the same communication having different meanings in different cultures.     T

    4.         Globalization of the world economy is crucial to the rapid increase of intercultural communication. F 

    5.         Technology has made international business travel obsolete.    F

    6.         The recent increase in migration of people around the world has led to discussions about multiculturalism in many countries.      T

    7.         In the study of intercultural communication, the influence of immigration histories in U.S. has little significance for current intercultural communication interactions.      F

    8.         As they become globalized, companies will have to train their work forces to deal with multiculturalism.       T

    9.         Intercultural communication as a discipline was not established in U.S. until the 1980s.    F

    10.      Intercultural communication has an important application in the training of international business persons.     T

    III. Multiple Choices

    1. From what areas of the world do most of today's immigrants to the United States

    come?      A

    A.       Asia and Latin America

    B.       Mexico and Eastern Europe

    C.      Haiti and China

    D.      Eastern Europe and the Middle East

    2. Which of the following has occurred due to advances in technology?      C

    A.       People are beginning to spend more time with family members.

    B.       The number of relationships we have with people have decreased.

    C.      People have more frequent contact with people from other cultures.

    D.      People are gaining a clearer sense of who they really are.

    3. To effectively compete with other nations, Chinese companies have to    C

    A.       impose their own business conventions on other countries.

    B.       emphasize quick returns and short-term goals.

    C.      understand how business is conducted in other countries.

    D.      encourage their overseas representatives to complete business deals very quickly.

    4. Communication technology is an important issue in intercultural communication

    because       A

    A.       it enables us to come into contact with people who are very different from ourselves in ways we do not always understand.

    B.       we are not always able to meet or see people with whom we communicate.

    C.      it is not possible to develop cultural understandings with people over E-mail or other such high-tech communication devices.

    D.      cultural differences disappear when we are able to communicate with people all over the world.

    5. As a result of globalization, new issues facing corporations include      D

    A.       cultural differences in work ethics

    B.       stereotyping by members of international teams

    C.      personnel who are overqualified for overseas positions

    D.      a & b

    6. The classic The Silent Language published in 1959, was written by _____.    D

    A.       Kluckhohn

    B.       Benedict

    C.      Mead                                                                                                      

    D.      Edward Hall

    7. Which of the following is true about the development of the intercultural communication area of study?  B

    A.       It originated with scholars looking for practical answers to help overseas workers.

    B.       This area of study is almost the same as the research done in the field of sociology.

    C.      It began as a result of people's displeasure over the foreign relations concerning the Vietnam conflict.

    D.      The primary goal of scholars was to develop theories that described intercultural communication processes.

    8. Joint ventures, transnational corporations, multinational mergers, and acquisitions are products of  A

    A. globalization.

    B. domestic interaction.

    C. international interaction.

    D. the environment.

    9. It is important to study intercultural communication because      A

    A.     it is a necessary and worthwhile pursuit.

    B.    most people are more alike than they realize.

    C. cultural differences bring people together.

    D.    intercultural communication is subjective.

    10. The China Association for Intercultural Communication is held ______.   B

    A.  once a year

    B.  every two years

    C.  every three years

    D.  every four years

    Chapter 2

     Basic Communication Theory

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this Chapter, you should be able to

    l          Understand the basics of communication

    l          Distinguish types of communication

    l          Define the term of communication

    l          Identify the components of communication

    l          Explain the process and models of communication

    l          Describe the characteristics of communication

    l          Understand the role of communication in business

    Exercises

    I. Discussion Questions:

    1.         What do we mean by communication? What are the needs and purpose

  • 举报 #1
    teresa 2009-06-15 08:53
    Exercises
    I. Discussion Questions:
    1.         What do we mean by communication? What are the needs and purposes for human communication?
    2.         What are the components in the process of communication? Can you specify each of them with examples?
    3.         Would you please provide a brief illustration for the linear, the circular and contexualized model of communication respectively? What are their differences?
    4.         What are the characteristics of communication?
    5.         What is the role of communication in business?
    6.         Why are encoding and decoding the areas where misunderstanding is most likely to occur? Can you provide some examples to illustrate?
    II. True or False:
    Write T if the statement is true; write F if it is false.
    1.         When a mother talks to her 3-month old baby, there is no communication taking place.  F
    2.         Intrapersonal communication is communication between people.   F  
    3.         A verbal message only includes oral message.   F
    4.         Feedback is information about the effectiveness of communication.   T
    5.         Communication is dynamic, interactive and reversible.    F
    6.         Communication is dynamic, which means that it is ongoing.    T
    7.         Communication is rule governed and contexts specify the appropriate rules.   F
    8.         People learn to think, feel, believe, and act as they do because of the messages that have been communicated to them.   F
    9.         Maslow describes people as being driven by sets of needs in a hierarchy, from the most basic at the peak to most refined at the bottom of a triangle       F
    10.      Not all cultures use symbols to communicate.      T
    III. Multiple choice
    1.        Communication can be said to occur when     B
    A.  a sender transmits through a channel to a receiver
    B.  the idea travels through the channel to the receiver
    C.  encoding and decoding takes place with noise
    D.      a receiver decodes a message according to a mental database of categories that furnish meaning
    2.        Choosing the right channel to transmit a message     B
    A. depends on whether the message is direct or indirect
    B. depends on the role and force of words in the culture
    C. is a communication skill
    D.      is an example of how technology drives business
    3.  The fact that communication is dynamic means       A
    A. communication is ongoing and transitory.
    B. communication is inattentive and symbolic.
    C. communication is systemic.
    D. all of the above
    4.  All human interaction is influenced to some degree by        C
    A. culture shock.
    B. anxiety about rejection.
    C. the social, physical, and cultural setting.
    D. a physical reaction to a specific cultural custom.
    5.  Which of the following is not a basic assumption about human communication?       B
    A. Communication is rule governed.
    B. Contexts specify the appropriate rules.
    C. Rules are culturally diverse.
    D. Rules vary culturally in emphasis but not content.        
    6. ______ are about wanting food, shelter and sex.       A
    A.             Basic needs
    B.             The needs of safety
    C.            The social needs
    D.            The need for self –actualization
    7. Among the key components of communication, which of the following are areas where misunderstanding is most likely to occur?       B
    A.              Sender and receiver
    B.             Encoding and decoding
    C.            Message and channel
    D.            Response and feedback
    8. Which of the following is true about the relationship between communication and context?      D
    A.   People always use their preferred communicate styles no matter what the context is.
    B.   Historical context of communication is not important to consider when we communicate with culture that has a future-orientation.
    C.   Context only concerns the social aspects of the situation in which communication occurs.
    D.   People communicate differently depending on the context.
    9. When cultures differ        A
    A.   communication practices differ.
    B.   people who speak a particular language differ.
    C.   people from a particular geographic region differ.
    D.   people from a certain culture differ.
    10. How did E. T. Hall contribute to the origins of intercultural communication?       B
    A.   Hall developed technology that increased our ability to communicate with people in other cultures.
    B.   Hall explored the relationship between a person's national identity and values orientations.
    C.   Hall helped describe the relationship between language learning and conflict.
    D.   Hall identified and wrote about cultural differences in nonverbal communication.

    Chapter 3
    The Nature of Culture
    Learning Objectives
    Be the end of this Chapter, you should be able to
              Define the term of culture
              Identify the ingredients and functions of culture
              Describe the characteristics of culture
              By aware of cultural differences
    Exercises
    I. Discussion Questions:
    1.         What is common to the various definition of culture?
    2.         Isolate what you believe to be the essential ingredients of culture.  Use examples to support your choices.
    3.         Would you please elaborate the functions and characteristics of culture?
    4.         How do you suppose someone from a foreign culture would respond to Chinese co-cultures? Be specific.
    5.         Using two to three examples, discuss the various ways that cultures change.
    6.         “Culture is shared, learned behavior that is transmitted by one generation to another.” What does this statement mean to you in terms of your own personal development?
    II. True or False:
    Write T if the statement is true; write F if it is false.
    1.         Culture is largely without structure because of its complex and unconscious nature.  F
    2         Many of the behaviors we label as culture are not only automatic and invisible, but also produced without us being aware of them.   T
    3         Because of their long history, cultures do not change or reinvent themselves.  F
    4         The essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values.  T
    5.  The relationship between communication and culture may be best described by saying that culture has tremendous influence on communication but that communication only   moderately affects culture.  F
    6.  In intercultural interactions, the status of the communicators has very little affect on their communication.  F
    7.         A good definition of culture for business communication purposes is "The food, the costumes, dances and celebrations of a country". F
    8.         The belief that everyone underneath is just the same after all is helpful to business communication.  F
    9.         Culture, using the family as its first conduits, teaches the child how to behave in such a manner that is acceptable to adults and that garners them rewards.  T
    10.     Culture is usually learned on both the conscious and unconscious levels.  T
    III. Multiple Choices:
    1. Which of the descriptions below is NOT an accurate representation of the relationship between communication and culture?   
    A.   Culture influences communication.
    B.    Culture and communication are not really related to each other
    C.   Communication is a way of contesting and resisting dominant culture.
    D.   Communication transmits cultural information.
    2. Understanding another culture:
    A.               enables businesspeople to know why foreign associates believe and act as they     do
    B.                is best achieved through "do's and don'ts" lists
    C.               is important for businesspeople because they can appear to be better informed.
    D.               isn't necessary for businesspeople
    3. Culture, for purposes of business communication, is:
    A.   interchangeable with communication
    B.    values, attitudes and behavior
    C.   unnecessary to investigate
    D.   constantly changing
    4.        Every culture is learned, and therefore:
    A.   a person can describe his or her own culture completely
    B.    it is learnable
    C.   it is something you know from birth
    D.   it is not possible to live outside your own culture
    5.  The basic functions of culture are all except which of the following?
    A.      Culture serves the basic need of laying out a predictable world.
    B.      Culture enables us to make sense of our surroundings.
    C.  Culture helps us set limits on behavior.
    D.  Culture helps us make better financial predictions in the stock market.
    6.  Which one of the following elements of culture tends to resist change and
    adaptation?
    A.  artifacts
    B.  gender roles
    C.  values
    D.  housing
    7.  The term “culture” is
    A. complex, multidimensional, and all-pervasive.
    B. another word for "country."
    C. generally agreed upon to mean groups and societies.
    D. both social and political.
    8.          A person’s culture is which of the following?
    A. innate
    B. inborn
    C. learned
    D. accidental
    9.          People learn the lessons of culture through which of the following?
    A. proverbs
    B. myths
    C. mass media
    D. all of the above
    10. To say that culture is integrated is to say which of the following?
    A. Cultures change and that change is hard to stop.
    B. Time and space work together.
    C. The various facets of culture are interrelated.
    D. Diffusion and innovation work in tandem.

    Chapter  4
    Cultural Values
    Learning objectives
    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to
              Define the term of value.
              Understand that values form the core of culture.
              Be aware of the basic values of our own and of other cultures
              Appreciate how cultural differences in work related values shape behavior
    Exercises:
    I. Discussion Questions:
    1.         What is meant by the term cultural value? How are these values manifested within a given culture?
    2.         How are values formed? How can we find out about people’s values?
    3.         How does individualism and collectivism work in the business setting?
    4.         Why do we say that cultural values guide both perception and communication?
    5.         What are the similarities and difference among the value studies by Kluckholn and Strodtbeck, Geert Hofstede, Trompenaars and Schwartz ?
    6.         Can you illustrate cultural values that are critical to intercultural business communication?
    II. True and False
    1.         Since all cultures share the same basic values, cultures attach the same meanings to these basic values.  F
    2.         Primary values are the most important.   T
    3.         The values and behaviors of a particular culture may not be the values and behaviors of all the individuals within that culture.   T
    4.         The values of independence and individualism tend to appear in together in a culture.  F
    5.         In cultures where group membership in permanent, members of groups prefer not to engage in open confrontation.   T
    6.         It is unimportant to business people whether or not members of a culture feel comfortable displaying emotion in public.  F
    7.         Cultures with a large power distance are hierarchical cultures.    T
    8.         At the core of uncertainty avoidance is the idea that the future is predictable.   F
    9.         Uncertainty is the same thing as risk.   F
    10.      Businesspeople do not need to recognize different ways of observing death in different cultures.  F
    III. Multiple Choices:
    Circle the letter corresponding to the correct response.
    1.         Which statement about values is incorrect?
            a.        Values are social principles, goals, or standards accepted by persons in a culture.
            b.        Values are learned by contacts with family members, teachers, and religious leaders.
            c.        Values are influenced by what is seen on television or read in newspapers.
    d.       People in various cultures have basically similar values.
    2.  Which statement highlights weak uncertainty avoidance?
            a.        One group's truth should not be imposed on others.
            b.        Scientific opponents cannot be personal friends.
            c.        Citizen protest should be repressed.
    d.                   Negative attitudes are expressed toward young people.
    3.  Proponents of which attitude feel that self-interest is an appropriate goal?
            a.        Uncertainty-reduction
            b.        Attribution
            c.        Individualism
    d.                   Collectivism
    4.  People of which type of society believe their truth is the only truth?
            a.        Individualistic
            b.        Strong-uncertainty avoidance
            c.        Collectivistic
    d.                   Weak-uncertainty avoidance
    5. Power distance is a concept that was developed by Hofstede to describe
    a.        the social distance between the highest and lowest members of society
    b.        the power of multinational organizations
    c.        the power differential between developed and less developed countries
    d.          the power difference between men and women.
    6. Dominance, harmony, and subjugation are all value orientations that correspond to which of the following cultural problems?
    a. What is the nature of human beings?
    b. What is the relationship of humans to nature?
    c. What is the orientation of humans to time?
    d. What is the human orientation to activity?
    7. Which of the following value orientations emerged from the Chinese research team?
    a. long-term versus short-term orientation
    b. masculinity/femininity orientation
    c. preferred form of activity orientation
    d. uncertainty avoidance orientation
    8. The notions of masculinity and femininity
    a. are universal for every culture across time.
    b. are not just based on biological differences.
    c. have not changed through the ages.
    d. have well-established and understood meanings.
    9. Which is true about high-context communication?
    a. It is the communication style preferred by most people in the United States.
    b. The majority of meaning and information is in the verbal code.
    c. Most of the information is either in the physical context or internalized in the person
    d. It emphasizes explicit verbal messages.
    10.        "Cultural priority" means
    a.        key sources where a society generates its GDP
    b.        layers of society with a few at the top and many at the bottom
    c.        a value held by members of a culture to a greater or lesser degree compared with other cultures
    d.          what you should learn last about a culture
    Chapter 5
    Verbal Communication
    Learning objectives
    By the end of the Chapter, you should be able to
              see how language and culture are closely linked.
              Understand cultural influences on some commonly observed differences between English and Chinese
              distinguish denotational and connotational meanings of words, linear and nonlinear language, deductive and inductive patterns, etc.
              learn to make cross-cultural comparisons of different pragmatic rules used in various speech acts and verbal styles
              be aware of the complexity in understanding the meanings of idioms which are cultural –specific.
    Exercises:
    I. Discussion Questions:
    1.         How are language construction, thought, perceptions and culture linked?
    2.         Can you evaluate thought patterns and their relationship to intercultural communication?
    3.         What is Chinese discourse pattern like and how is it different from the English one?
    4.         Using examples from the Chinese/ Japanese language, discuss how the language offers insight into some cultural beliefs and attitudes of the Chinese/Japanese people.
    5.         Compare and contrast Eastern and Western approaches to the use of direct and                              
            indirect conversation.
    6.  What are some common problems with translation?  Give reasons for why these problems take place. Discuss the qualities of an effective translator.
    II. True or False:
    Write T if the statement is true; write F if it is false.
    F    1.         English is the most widely accepted language for business; therefore, native English speakers do not need to learn a foreign language.
    F    2.         Language holds us together as groups and differentiates us into groups.
    T    3.         Most languages have the same basic grammar and syntax.
    T    4.         The physical environment of a culture influences the development of vocabulary.
    F   5.   The exact meaning for words is always reflected in the definition in the dictionary.
    T   6.    Studies of cross-cultural differences in language suggest that people cannot perceive concepts when they have no word in their language to identify them.
    F   7.    The use of direct and indirect language is a major linguistic difference between North American and many East Asian cultures.
    T   8.    People with a low-context communication style depend on the verbal code for the meaning of a message.
    F   9.    People possess the meanings of words; words merely elicit those meanings.
    F   10.   Slang is not specific to any particular co-culture.
    III. Multiple Choices:
    Circle the letter corresponding to the correct response.
    1.        The functions of language include all except the following?
            A. preserving culture
            B. transmitting culture to new generations
            C. communicating ideas, thoughts and feelings
            D. pouring out instructions by telephone
    2. Linguistic knowledge leads to higher intercultural competence because
    A.       it is the first step everyone needs to take to learn about intercultural communication.
    B.       we cannot communicate with people from different cultures if the interaction is not conducted in their first languages.
    C.      knowing the difficulty of learning a second language helps us develop empathy for individuals who face challenges in new cultural contexts.
    D.      fluency in a foreign language increases tolerance for ambiguity.
    3. Language barrier refers to
    A.       violations of grammatical rules
    B.       cultural and linguistic violations of communication conventions
    C.      poor pronunciation
    D.      the use of an interpreter.
    4. There is a suggested relationship between language and the way people think. Which of the following statements about relationship is NOT true?
    A.       it was explored in the late 1950s by Benjamin Whorf
    B.       it proposes that the categories by which we understand the world are related to the way we organize language
    C.      it claims that native speakers of the same language think in similar patterns
    D.      it proves that speakers of different languages think alike
    5. Which communication style is preferred by most people in the United States?
    A.             high-context
    B.             elaborate
    C.            direct
    D.            none of the above
    6.  Proverbs are significant to the study of intercultural communication for which of the following reasons?
            A. They provide a compact description of a culture’s values.
    B. They tell a great deal about what a culture praises and what it rejects.
    C. They unite a people with the wisdom of their ancestors.
    D. all of the above
    7.        One difficulty in translation deals with finding the equivalent definition of a                                       
          word in another language.  This translation problem is referred to as
    A. lexical equivalence.
    B. experiential-cultural equivalence.
    C. conceptual equivalence.
    D. idiomatic equivalence.
    8.  A translator must be skilled not only in a language’s vocabulary, but also in interpreting
    A. a culture’s history.
    B. a culture’s social and political institutions.
    C. the intentions of the speaker.
    D. all of the above  
    9.       The main idea of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis is that
    A.             language is just a device for reporting a person's experience.
    B.             two languages can represent the same social reality.
    C.            the social reality can be conveyed to a person who does not speak the language.
    D.            language functions as a way of shaping a person's experience.
    10. Idiomatic expressions
    A. deal with universal experiences and are often easy to define.
    B. are culture-bound.
    C. deal with truisms found in nearly every culture.
    D. have their meaning in the experiences of each generation.

    Chapter 6  
    Discernment of Nonverbal Communication
    Learning Objectives
    By the end of this chapter, you should be able to
              Understand what nonverbal communication is and what function it serves.
              Specify the similarities and differences between verbal and nonverbal communication.
              Describe cultural rules governing body language, which includes posture, gesture, eye contact, facial expressions, body touch and smell.
              Understand how paralanguage affect successful messages in intercultural encounters.
              Appreciate how attitudes toward time, and use of space convey nonverbal messages in intercultural encounters.
              Gain an awareness that successful intercultural communication depends not only on what you say and the manner in which we say it, but also on the behavior we display.
    Exercises:
    I. Discussion Questions:
    1.         What are the similarities and differences between verbal and nonverbal communication?
    2.         How can you gain an awareness that successful intercultural communication depends not only on what you say and the manner in which we say it, but also on the behavior we display?
    3.         Using several cultural examples, discuss how appearance and attire reflect the values and attitudes of a culture.
    4.         How does posture communicate different messages?  Use examples to illustrate your answer.
    5.         Using specific cultural examples, what do the eyes communicate in different cultures?
    6.        Identify the different ways people use touch to convey messages to others.
    7.        How do paralanguage characteristics differ across cultures?  How does paralanguage affect the meanings we ascribe to a message?  Use examples to support your answer.
    8.        Using examples to support your answer, how does the way a culture perceives and uses space communicate messages to others?
    9.        Explain Hall’s notion of M-time and P-time cultures.  How are they different?  How might such differences lead to misunderstandings in an interaction?
    10.        How does silence function as a tool of communication during interaction?
    II. True or False:
    Write T if the statement is true; write F if it is false.
    F  1.         When nonverbal behavior contradicts a verbal message, people tend to believe the verbal message more because it happens at a more conscious level.
    F 2.         Nonverbal communication is used only as a means of substituting for verbal communication that cannot adequately convey an intended message.
    T  3.         One of the main challenges facing intercultural communication researchers who study nonverbal communication is the need for more theoretical support to explain cross-cultural differences.
    T  4.         Hall suggests that different cultural groups have different rules for personal space and that these affect intercultural communication.
    F  5.        The use of space and distance are so obvious and omnipresent that people are keenly aware of the cultural rules that govern their behavior.
    T  6.         The Japanese office arrangement illustrates the group orientation of the Japanese.
    F  7.         People who prefer a polychronic orientation to time tend to do things one at a time, and time is regulated in small precise units.
    F  8.         The handshake is the accepted form of greeting business people everywhere.
    T  9.         People from low-context cultures tend to feel uncomfortable with silence during a conversation.
    T  10.      Paralanguage refers to the sounds we make but not the words we use.
    III. Multiple Choices:
    Circle the letter corresponding to the correct response.
    1.Which term refers to rate, volume, and quality that interrupts or temporarily takes the place of speech and affects the meaning of a message?  A
    A.     metacommunication
    B.     chronemics
    C.    oculesics
    D.    paralanguage
    2. People from cultures that follow the monochronic time system tend to     A
    A.     do one thing at a time.
    B.     be committed to people.
    C.    borrow and lend things often.
    D.    build lifetime relationships.
    3.Nonverbal communication does not include
    A.     chromatics.
    B.     chronemics.
    C.    haptics.
    D.    semantics.
    4. Which of the following statements related to space is incorrect?
    A.     In the United States, the social zone is used for interacting impersonally in business situations.
    B.     In the United States, offices on the fourth floor have more status than those on the first floor.
    C.    French top-level executives have private offices.
    D.    The Japanese do not consider private offices appropriate.
    5.Which statement regarding oculesics is incorrect?
    A.     People in the United States do not favor direct eye contact.
    B.     People in China lower their eyes as a sign of respect.
    C.    The Japanese direct their gaze below the chin.
    D.    Eye contact is very intense in the Middle East.
    6.Which statement concerning haptics is incorrect?
    A.     Touching may be interpreted as a form of sexual harassment.
    B.     Some cultures are more comfortable with bodily contact than others.
    C.    Japan is considered a "touch" culture.
    D.    In the Middle East, avoid touching someone with your left hand.
    7.Which statement relating to chromatics is incorrect?
    A.     Chromatics can have negative and positive connotations.
    B.     Americans and Japanese both wear black to funerals.
    C.    Brides in India often wear red or yellow.
    D.    In China, a green hat signifies that your wife or sister is a prostitute.
    8.Which statement is incorrect?
    A.     Knowing cultural variations in the use of silence is helpful when conversing with persons in another culture.
    B.     Determining cultural meanings associated with various colors is advised to assure that nonverbal messages associated with color are positive ones.
    C.    Good advice when communicating with persons in other cultures is to keep gestures to a minimum.
    D.    Although oral communication varies from culture to culture, nonverbal communication is almost always interpreted the same in each culture.
    9. How does nonverbal communication differ from verbal communication?
    A.      People have more control over their nonverbal than their verbal behavior.
    B.      We tend to think about our nonverbal behaviors more than about our use of language.
    C.      We learn nonverbal behaviors implicitly.
    D.     Nonverbal behavior always complements verbal behavior.
    10. Which of the following is true about nonverbal behavior?
    A.      We are rarely conscious of our nonverbal communication behaviors.
    B.      The lower a person's status, the more likely the person is to use large, expansive gestures.
    C.      There are no nonverbal behaviors that consistently reveal deception.
    D.      There is little cultural variation in how nonverbal communication is used.
    Chapter 7
    Intercultural Business Writing
    Learning Objectives
    By the end of this Chapter, you should be able to
             Understand the importance of writing in international business communication.
             Explain why it’s necessary to define your purpose, analyze your audience and choose the most appropriate channel when planning a message.
             Be aware of cultural impact on writing tones and styles in intercultural business writing.
             Know the conventions for writing international business messages in English.
             Understand cultural differences in format and layout of most common forms of business documents.
    Exercises
    I. Discussion questions:
    1.         What is the importance of writing in international business communication?
    Written business communication is a fundamental vehicle for conducting transactions, and it maintains its unique permanency in business activities. It is a vital factor that enables the business world to run smoothly and efficiently.
    2.         Why is it necessary to define your purpose, analyze your audience and choose the most appropriate channel when planning a message?
        The purpose of communication is to obtain complete understanding between the parties involved and elicit the responses required. Since business writing is oriented to achieving certain goals, when receiving a letter, the reader reasonably assumes that it’s the writer’s responsibility to make the message readable enough for the recipient to figure out easily what it is meant for. So writer must bear in mind what his audiences are and find a proper way to convey the message to the reader.
    3.         What is the cultural impact on writing tones and styles in intercultural business writing?
    Style is the expression of the writer’s ideas, or his or her manner of thinking; it is the reflection of the sense of humor and self-confidence. Applied to business writing, style consists of communicative and rhetorical principles and the techniques the writer uses. The style of letter-writing may be informal, in the case of a letter to a close business associate, or formal, in the case of a letter to a new business partner.
    4.         How do conventions for writing international business messages in English work?
    5.         What are cultural differences in format and layout of most common forms of business documents?
    6.         What are the guidelines for writing international messages in English?
    II. True or false questions:
    Write T if the statement is true; write F if it is false.
    1.         When compared to oral communication, writing is more accurate, more convincing, more economical and more efficient when sending messages to more people.  T
    2.         Communication is successful when both parties agree about the purpose of the communication, who the communicators should be, and what channel should be used.   T
    3.         Clarity and conciseness are important characteristics of business messages in any culture.  T
    4.         Choice of channel may be culturally based--for instance, preferring written memos over oral communication.  T
    5.         Direct plan is favored largely by relationship-oriented cultures while indirect plan is favored by result-oriented cultures.  F
    6.         The use of a buffer in bad-messages is typical of the writing style of Latin American. T
    7.         Persuasion is accomplished through a direct approach in low-context cultures.T
    8.         Facsimile transmissions are less dependable than mail service in many countries.  F  
    9.         The industrialized countries have come to an agreement on what is an acceptable format for business letters and reports. F
    10.     The writing of dates can be confusing in intercultural communication. T
    III. Multiple Choices:
    1. Which of the following is not true? D
    a.        The American date 3/7/20xx is March 7th 20xx
    b.        The German 3. 9. 20xx becomes 9/3/19xx in American English
    c.        The sum $3,956.70 is written as $3.956,70 in most European languages
    d.               All multinational companies have agreed to write dates as follows: 5 May, 20xx.t
    2.        Indirect plan is  A
    a.        preferred by cultures that value individual responsibility--both credit and blame
    b.        preferred by cultures that communicate about results
    c.        preferred by low-context cultures for persuasion
    d.                  preferred by high-context cultures only for persuasion
    3.        Which of the following statements is correct? A
            a.        Latin Americans use a buffer when delivering bad news.
            b.        German letters tend to be informal.
            c.        French letter endings tend to be rather formal.
    d.                  Japanese letters avoid bad news.
    4.        Which of the following statements related to e-mail is incorrect?B
            a.        messages should be responded to within 48 hours
            b.        messages should be kept to two screens
            c.         an inside address is not used
    d.                  devising an electronic signature is recommended
    5.        In which country is a photograph of the applicant typically included with the résumé?哪个国家的个人简历的通常带申请者的照片?D
            a.        France
            b.        Germany
            c.        Great Britain
    d.                  United States
    6.        Which countries include family information on the résumé? C 哪个国家把家庭背景放在个人简历中?
            a.        Germany and Japan
            b.        Spain and Great Britain
            c.        Great Britain and Japan
    d.                  Spain and Germany
    7.        Which of the following statement regarding job search information in various countries is incorrect?  C
            a.        In the United States, most hiring officials prefer you include names, addresses, and telephone numbers of three or four references.
            b.        In France, it is difficult for someone directly from the university to get a job without experience.
            c.        In Germany, students often enter into an employment contract while still in college.
    d.          In Spain, most positions are gained through advertisements rather than through       personal referrals.
    8.        From the perspective of the Japanese, U.S. writing would appear日本人和美国人的观点里,写作应该怎么样?B
            a.        condescending.谦逊的
            b.        uncaring. 随意的,不注意的
            c.        too indirect.
    d.                  long
    9.        Unwelcome messages B
    a.        are easy for people in low-context cultures to communicate
    b.        are usually organized in indirect plan by members of high-context cultures
    c.        require someone to be blamed, since the words are not impersonal
    d.                  must be in words, in high-context cultures, to be understood
    10.        When it comes to saying "no" B
    a.        members of some high-context cultures are not concerned about loss of face of those being refused
    b.        members of some high-context cultures have a hard time actually saying "no"
    c.        members of low-context cultures prefer to say "no" quickly
    d.        members of low-context cultures have great concern for loss of face of the person saying "no"
    Chapter 8
    Intercultural Business Etiquette and Protocol
    Learning Objectives
    By the end of this Chapter, you should be able to
           Understand the importance of appropriate etiquette and protocol in intercultural business communication.
           Identify cultural differences in naming systems, business card exchange and other initiating business contacts.
           Understand how cultural differences in social entertainment may affect intercultural business communication in terms of dining and drinking practices, seating arrangement, cocktail parties as well as tipping.
           Understand how gift-giving practices vary from culture to culture.
           Learn the role that clothing plays in interacting with persons from other countries.
           Learn the importance of knowing about the variable rules of business engagement.
           Become aware of the cultural impact on the comprehension of humor in international business
    Exercise
    I. Discussion questions:
    1.         What is the importance of appropriate etiquette and protocol in intercultural business communication?
    2.         What are cultural differences in naming systems and customs related to business card exchange?
    3.         How do cultural differences in dining and drinking practices affect intercultural communication?
    4.         How do cultural nuances of tipping work?
    5.         How do gift-giving practices vary from culture to culture and what role does gift-giving play in establishing favorable intercultural relations?
    6.         What is the role that dress and appearance play in interacting with persons from other countries?
    7.         Why is it very important to know about the customs associated with holidays and holy days of the country in which you are traveling or conducting business?
    8.         How do office customs vary from culture to culture?
    9.         Why is it important to understand the cultural impact on humor and how can we use humor wisely in different cultures in international business?
    II. True or false questions:
    True or false questions:
    Write T if the statement is true; write F if it is false.
    1.         A firm handshake is a polite way to greet someone in any culture  .F
    2.         An exchange of business cards is more common in the United States than in other countries. T
    3.         Dining in a Japanese home requires sitting in a kneeling position on a tatami mat .T
    4.         When visiting Japan or China, be sure to tip generously cab drivers and any service personnel you may encounter. F
    5.         In Germany, business gifts are usually exchanged at the beginning of formal negotiations. T
    6.         From the American perspective, gift giving is akin to bribery. F
    7.         The practice of serving a glass of water with meals is universal. F
    8.         Since appropriate dress varies from culture to culture, dress has no impact on perceptions of respect and authority.  F
    9.         Suit, dress shirt, and tie are acceptable business dress for men around the globe. T
    10.     While black symbolizes mourning in the United States, white is often worn to Japanese funerals.T
    III. Multiple Choices:
    1.        Which statement regarding introductions is incorrect?  B
            a.        In China, the surname comes first, and the given name last.
            b.        All persons with a college degree are addressed as "Doctor" in Japan.
            c.        Persons from Latin American countries often add their mother's maiden name to their surname.
    d.                  In Columbia, the title "Don" is added to a person's name to show respect.
    2. Which of the following statements related to business card exchange is incorrect? A
    a.        U.S. persons only exchange business cards when there is a reason to contact the person later.
    b.        Business cards for use internationally should be white with black ink.
    c.        Present the business card with the left hand only in Africa.
    d.                  Present the business card with both hands in Japan.
    3.        Which statement concerning cultural differences in dining practices is incorrect? D
            a.        In Italy, the salad is often served after the main course.
            b.        Serving coffee at the end of the meal is common in most cultures.
            c.        Countries besides the United States that serve water with meals usually serve it without ice.
    d.                  In all cultures, business meals are usually eaten at restaurants.
    4.        Tipping is prohibited in which country? B
            a.         Bolivia
            b.        Japan
            c.        United States
    d.                  France
    5.        Which statement regarding gift giving in the United States is incorrect? D
            a.        Business gifts to an office are intended for the manager to be taken home to share with his or her family.
            b.        The best rule to follow when giving a business gift in the United States is to limit the price to $25 or less.
            c.        In the United States gifts are opened in front of the giver.
    d.                  Exchanging gifts among colleagues is becoming less common.
    6.        Which statement is incorrect regarding a gift of flowers? D
            a.        In most European countries, a gift of carnations is the most appreciated.
            b.        Avoid sending yellow, red, or white flowers to a Mexican host.
            c.        Chrysanthemums would be inappropriate in both Japan and Italy.
    d.                  In some countries gladiolus are symbols of mourning.
    7.        Which statement regarding gift giving is incorrect? D
            a.        In Korea, business gifts are usually given at the beginning of formal negotiations.
            b.        Avoid giving gifts to the French until a personal relationship has been developed.
            c.        A striped tie is an appropriate gift for a British man.
    d.       If you admire a personal possession of an Islamic host, you will probably receive the item admired.
    7.          Japanese business people view gift giving as which of the following? B
    A. bribery
    B. inappropriate between business associates
    C. a way of easing into business negotiations
    D. a sign of how wealthy the gift giver is
    8.          In Africa, direct requests for an appointment B
    A. require one week notice.
    B. are oftentimes immediately approved and scheduled.
    C. are inappropriate; a “go-between” or intermediary is essential.
    D. must be approved by all senior officials.
    9.   When exchanging business cards in China, you should do all of the following except      
                which one?  D
    A. include the name of your company, title, and credentials on your business card
    B. use both hands in the exchange as a sign of politeness
    C. quickly put the other person’s card in your pocket or purse to examine later
    D. be prepared to exchange business cards at both formal and informal gatherings
    10. In order to improve the environment for communicating with a foreign partner, you should  D
    a.        start with a joke to break the ice.
    b.                  be personal and use first names.
    c.                  talk as you always talk.
    d.                  know the basics of behavior and social etiquette of your partner.
    Chapter 9
    Intercultural Business Negotiation
    Learning objectives
    By the end of this Chapter, you should be able to
             Define the intercultural negotiation process.
             Discuss ways in which cultural differences can impact international negotiations.
             Distinguish between negotiation models and styles.
             Be able to differentiate between negotiation strategies.
    Exercises:
    I. Discussion questions:
    1.         In what ways can cultural differences impact international negotiations?
    2.         When analyzing a negotiation problem, what are the factors to consider?
    3.         Can you give examples of cultures to show the differences in negotiating with people who are group oriented versus those who are individual oriented?
    4.         Which negotiation model would you choose when negotiating with Americans?
    5.         Can you differentiate different negotiation strategies?
    6.         What are intercultural negotiation guidelines and how to use them successfully?
    II. True or false questions:
    Write T if the statement is true; write F if it is false.
    1.       The intercultural negotiation process involves defining, observing, analyzing, and evaluating   what happens between negotiators. T
    2.       Predicting how the opponent will respond is essential to the negotiation process. T
    3.       Developing a personal relationship with persons on the other side of negotiation is always recommended. T
    4.     Overcoming cultural barriers is relatively unimportant when negotiating.F
    5.     A conscious endeavor to manage cultural differences is required if there is to be mutual understanding.  T
    6.       Negotiation boils down to mere differences in style; approaches to negotiating are value-free. F
    7.       Cultures that emphasize relationships may negotiate differently from cultures that emphasize results. T
    8.       Everybody around a negotiating table understands compromise: each party gives a little and gains a little, in a fifty-fifty agreement that is fair to both sides.  F
    9.       Cultures in the Pacific Rim tend to value trust, respect, and long-term relationships over contracts and rapid decision making. F
    10.   Russians view compromise in negotiations as a sign of weakness and immorality. T
    III. Multiple choices:
    1. Which of the following statements regarding intercultural negotiations is incorrect?  A
            a.        If the meeting is held on your opponent's turf, you have more power and responsibility.
            b.        If the meeting is held on your opponent's turf, they have more power.
            c.        If the meeting is held on your turf, you have more power.
    d.       If the meeting is held at a neutral location, each party is responsible for his or her own comforts.
    2. Which statement is NOT true of negotiating? A
    a.        it is value free
    b.        it is a special communication task
    c.        it occurs when two or more groups have common interests and disagreements about achieving them
    d.                  it is not static but is dynamic
    3. Studying the psychological disposition of the other negotiator's culture would help you to understand  C
            a.        their translators.
            b.        how they conceptualize and process information.
            c.        why cause and effect associations do not change from culture to culture.
    d.                  the variations within the culture.
    4. U.S. negotiators tend to  D
            a.        make fewer adjustments to opponent's behavior and change their negotiation strategy less.
            b.        change their negotiation strategy less and are less ethnocentric than their opponents.
            c.        use a group oriented negotiation style and make fewer adjustments to opponent's behavior.
    d.       use less ethnocentric behavior than their opponents and use a group oriented negotiation style.
    5. Individuals who are not group oriented may feel that group-oriented negotiators  B
            a.        appear to stall, make individual decisions, and are not interested in the negotiations.
            b.        appear to stall, are not interested in the negotiations, and give ambiguous statements.
            c.        make individual decisions, are not interested in the negotiations, and give ambiguous statements.
    d.       give ambiguous statements, are not interested in the negotiations, and are very rigid.
    6 Which of the following does NOT describe a Japanese negotiating team?  B
            a.        They allow insufficient time for the negotiations.
            b.        They come to the negotiation table with a large contingent of people.日本人协商时有很大的代表团
            c.        They give concessions that are small. 不怎么让步
    d.            They need to get to know their business partners.
    7        When high-context and low-context teams negotiate: C
    a.        both teams, regardless of culture, rank issues the same
    b.        both teams have the same attitude about using time efficiently
    c.        both teams have a desire to "win"
    d.                  both teams begin with generalities and continue using general references
    8 Business negotiations between Asia and North America can be difficult due to  A
    A. significant cultural differences between East and West.
    B. the fact that many Asians do not speak English.
    C. Asians not wishing to create interpersonal relationships with North Americans.
    D. North Americans being envious of Asian technology.
    9. Which of the following statements correctly describes tactics used in negotiation? A
            a.&nb
  • 举报 #2
    teresa 2009-06-15 08:54
    9. Which of the following statements correctly describes tactics used in negotiation? A
            a.        Telling jokes to relieve tension is considered appropriate.
            b.        Distracting tactics can be beneficial to the negotiation process.
            c.        All cultures consider negotiation to be retaliatory.
    d.                  Using role reversal to put yourself in the other's position is recommended.
    10.Which of the following is NOT an intercultural negotiation guideline? D
            a.        Determine that the negotiation is feasible.
            b.        Send the proper team including your own interpreter.
            c.        Adjust to the way of life in the host culture.
    d.                  Agree to a bad deal; it is better than no deal.

    Chapter 10
    Cultural Considerations in
    International Marketing Communication
    Learning Objectives
    By the end of this Chapter, you should be able to
             Understand the role that culture plays in international marketing and advertising
             Gain insight into controversial issues of global marketing and advertising
             Analyze consumer behavior from different cultural viewpoints
             Understand the importance of appropriate translation of advertisements
    Exercises:
    I. Discussion questions:
    1.         What is the role that culture plays in international marketing? Use specific examples to support your answer.
    2.         What are the differences of consumer behavior in different cultures?
    3.         What are considered as controversial issues of global marketing? Can you give insights into these issues? What are their implications in Chinese marketing?
    4.         What are advertising creativity trends in China?
    5.         How do you understand ACCA (Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction and Action ) in marketing strategy?
    II. True or false questions:
    Write T if the statement is true; write F if it is false.
    1.   Now cultural environment for business is regarded as a key factor for marketing development.   (T)   
    2.  Marketing may be seen primarily as a process of exchange, where communication, broadly defined, is central. (F)   
    3.   Marketing communications are not language based. ( F )   
    4.     Transference of pragmatic rules refers to the transference of corresponding words and sentence structure from mother tongue to target language.   ( T )   
    5.  Creative people can freely use colors to forge international market communications. ( F )   
    6.  With the spread of satellites and television, global marketing has become the rule. ( F )     
    7.     From the angle of pragmatics, pragmatic equivalence is the criterion to judge the quality of advertisement translations.   ( T )   
    8.   It’s reported that human images in China’s advertising are a mix of older, authoritative, seller-oriented male figures and younger, good-looking, buyer-oriented female faces and bodies.   ( T )   
    9.   Religion does not impact the way its adherents feel about material goods. ( F )   
    10.   Consumers buy meanings and marketers communicate meanings through products and advertisements.   ( T )   
    III. Multiple choices:
    1.       Talking about intercultural view to international marketing, which of the following is incorrect:  (a)
    a.       it is interaction between business people and sellers
    b.       it is interaction between products and customers
    c.       it is interaction between messages and consumers
    d.       it is interaction between different regional markets
    2.       Which of the following is not the characteristic of marketing communications? ( d )
    a.       colloquial
    b.       idiomatic
    c.       subtle
    d.       redundant
    3.       One of the most important factors in the intercultural marketing communication is  (d )
    a.       color
    b.       number and shape
    c.       dress and appearance
    d.       ritual
    4.       What is the biggest block for international advertiser? ( a )
    a.       value
    b.       ritual
    c.       hero
    d.       symbol
    5.       Which of the following is not the characteristic of a good slogan? ( b )
    a.       It should be short.
    b.       It should be long.
    c.       It should be “catchy”.
    d.       It should be able to communicate the main characteristics of the product or service that is being advertised.
    6. In order to be successful in the world market, corporations need to   (A)
    A. become more culturally sensitive.
    B. become more self-sufficient.
    C. employ better negotiators.
    D. apply their business models to other cultural settings.
    7.       All factors external to an organization that can affect the organization’s marketing activities and that are mostly uncontrollable is termed as _______ ?  (A)
    A.      marketing mix
    B.      target market
    C.      marketing environment
    D.     marketing transaction
    8.       The marketing environment includes all of the following except ______.  (D)
    A.      competitive environment
    B.      political / legal environment
    C.      production environment
    D.     social environment
    9.       Through the review of ____, Ford Motor Company discovers that those customers aged 18 to 29 like brighter colors, the exciting elements of a car, like spoilers, and a loud music system. (A)
    A.      demographic environment
    B.      economic environment
    C.      competitive environment
    D.     social environment
    10.   Continued immigration will enhance the need for marketing to recognize and respond to increasing _________.(A)
    A.      cultural diversity
    B.      political/legal complexity
    C.      social instability
    D.     conomic disparity

    Chapter 11
    Legal and Ethical Considerations in ICBC
    Learning objectives:
    By the end of this lecture, you should be able to
             Understand the laws and ethics that are applied in ICBC
             Define business ethics and understand how ethics and laws relate.
             Realize that legal and ethical interpretations are influenced by culture.
             Discuss real-life ethical dilemmas faced by businesses of today.
             Explore major global legal and ethical issues in international business.
             Discuss how to incorporate ethics into intercultural business decisions and build ethical competence within the discipline of ICBC.
    I.                   Discussion questions:
    1.         What are business ethics and how do ethics and laws relate with each other?
    2.         How are legal and ethical interpretations influenced by culture? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
    3.         Do you realize the difference between home country laws and host country laws? In what ways?
    4.         What are the alternative methods to resolving international disputes through legal channels?
    5.         How can moral philosophies or relevance influence business ethics?
    6.         What is the role of bribery and corruption in the international business arena?
    7.         How can a company effectively integrate ethics and business conduct among its managers and employees?
    8.  What difference should intercultural communication make in our understanding of ethical issues?
    II.                True and False
    Write T if the statement is true; write F if it is false.
    1.     Business communication between persons of different national origins is governed by the law of the host country. (F)
    2.     The Act of State Doctrine allows each nation to do as it wishes within its own boundaries without interference from other nations. (T)
    3.     The United States is a signatory to the trademark protection act of the Madrid Convention. (F)
    4.     The World Court is a body of the United Nations that provides a way to settle international disagreements between corporations. (F)
    5.     Home country laws are the laws, treaties, or acts that govern business within your country of citizenship and those governing your business with other countries. (T)
    6.     Host country laws are the laws, treaties, or acts that govern business within the foreign country in which you are conducing business. (T)
    7.     Ethics are principles of conduct guiding the behavior of individuals and groups. (T)
    8.     In high-context cultures both the firm that brings a suit and the firm that is being sued can lose face. (T)
    9.     The best thing for an international manager to do is to call in a lawyer from headquarters for all disputes. (F)
    10.  Jurisdiction of dispute settlements should be a part of contract negotiations. (T)
    III.             Multiple choices:
    1. When a company becomes global, it is governed by  (a)
    a.     home country laws and host country laws.
    b.     home country laws.
    c.     host country laws.
    d.     The Act of State Doctrine.
    2. Which of the following statements concerning contracts is incorrect?  ( c )
    a.        A contract is an agreement between parties to do something and can be made either by speaking, writing, or conduct.
    b.        In the United States an oral contract is legally enforceable if the parties admit that the contract was made.
    c.        In Japan most contract disputes are discussed and resolved through legal intervention.
    d.        The word contract is important to legal enforceability.
    3. Which statement regarding international law is incorrect?  (c)
    a.  The International Court of Justice, or World Court, is a body of the United Nations.
    b.  Institutions interested in uniform world laws include the International Chamber of Commerce, the Hague Convention, and the Vienna Agreement.
    c.  Unified laws have produced unified judicial practices.
    d. The EU and NAFTA are agreements that are trying to equalize the treatment of organizations doing business multinationally.
    4.       Which of the following statements concerning ethics is incorrect? (c)
    a.     Ethics judgments are based on a standard of moral behavior as to right and wrong.
    b.     Ethical behavior is not viewed the same by all cultures.
    c.     Ethical judgments are objective rather than subjective.
    d.     Reasonable people have difficulty agreeing as to where the line should be drawn between ethical and unethical acts.
    5.       If you break the law in another country, you may  (a)
    a.  ask the consulate for legal, medical, or financial advice.
    b.  only be tried for a crime according to the laws of your home country.
    c.  not call anyone other than a lawyer.
    d.  ask the consulate to get you out of jail.
    6. Ethical issues often become salient during intercultural encounters because  (b)
    a.     there are universal ethical principles one must learn
    b.  ethical principles are often culture-bound, and notions of what is ethical
    behavior vary across cultures.
    c.  no ethical guidelines can be applied to intercultural interactions because they lead to transformations in individuals' value systems.
    d.  individuals of different genders, races, ages, ethnic groups, languages, and cultural backgrounds cannot get along.
    7. Which of the following statements is true?  (b)
    a. All members of the United Nations have signed laws regulating trademarks.
    b. Trademarks are considered important by countries that cherish group belonging.
    c. Since intellectual property rights are regulated by international law, companies cannot negotiate special agreements in this area.
    d. Some cultures reject the notion of protection for trademarks and copyrights.
    8. Which statement regarding international law is incorrect? (c)
    a. The International Court of Justice, or World Court, is a body of the United Nations.
    b.        Institutions interested in uniform world laws include the International Chamber of Commerce, the Hague Convention, and the Vienna Agreement.
            c.        Unified laws have produced unified judicial practices.
            d.        The EU and NAFTA are agreements that are trying to equalize the treatment of organizations doing business multinationally.
    9. Which statement regarding nonwritten law is incorrect? (d)
            a.        Countries interpret laws differently.
    b.        In low-context cultures what is written is considered flexible and what is oral is considered binding.
            c.        Japan is an example of a high-context culture.
            d.        In all cultures, the interpretation of the situation is less important than external rules and regulations.
    10. International managers need an understanding of legal issues so they can (d )
    a.        represent their firms in a foreign court.
    b.        communicate with their customers and employees without violating the local laws
    c.        save their company legal fees after disputes have arisen.
    d.        all of the above
    Chapter 12
    Organizational Culture
    and Intercultural Communication Training
    Learning Objectives
    By the end of this Chapter, you should be able to
             Understand the foundations of an organizational culture, and how it relates to a national culture.
             Explain the structure of an organizational culture and the role of the communication process in organizations.
             Specify intercultural business communication needs for people at different levels of an organization.
             Explore the potential improvements that can be made to intercultural competences through training.
    Exercises:
    I. Discussion questions:
    1.         What are the main important characteristics of organizational culture?
    2.         What kind of functions can organizational culture fulfill?
    3.         What are the differences between organizational culture and national culture?
    4.         Can you explain the general types of organizational culture and their implications for communication?
    5.         Can you specify the different characteristics of Chinese and American organizational culture?
    6.         What is the importance of promoting synergy in organizational culture?
    7.         What skills would you argue are most important for developing intercultural communication competence?
    II. True and False
    Write T if the statement is true; write F if it is false.
    1.       Organizational culture means that every company or organization has a unique culture. (T)
    2.       A nation is the same as an organization in whatever respects. (F)
    3.       An organization’s value system reflects the relative importance among values, not the patterns of conflict and compatibility among values. (F)
    4.       A learning organization is one that proactively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge and that changes its behavior on the basis of new knowledge and insights.( T )
    5.       Multinational companies can best ensure fair treatment of all employees in all subsidiaries by having the same evaluation standards and reward structures in all subsidiaries. (F)
    6.       Companies with similar structures follow the same communication practices. (F)
    7.       A successful global organization requires training in intercultural business communication only at the top level. (F)
    8.       The creation of intercultural synergies is an on-going task of intercultural teams.  
    9.       The effectiveness of intercultural teams is influenced by corporate culture. (T)
    10.   As the business environment changes, the intercultural business communication strategy will change as well. (T)

    III. Multiple choices:
    1.  In countries with large power distance and strong uncertainty avoidance, people like power and authority  ( a )
    a.       to be concentrated in one person.
    b.       to be concentrated on a group of person.
    c.       to be decentralized.
    d.       consult with their subordinates when troubles arise.
    2.         In what kind of culture does an organization want everyone to know what he/she should      
    do without having to take orders from an all-powerful boss? (b )
    a         small power distance and weak uncertainty avoidance
    b         small power distance and strong uncertainty avoidance
    c         large power distance and weak uncertainty avoidance
    d         large power distance and strong uncertainty avoidance
    3.         Countries with weak uncertainty avoidance and small power distances prefer organizations that resemble _________. (c)
    a         international market
    b         regional market
    c         local market
    d         home country’s market
    4.         Which of the following countries does not tend to combine large power distance and weak uncertainty avoidance? (d )
    a         China
    b         India
    c         Malaysia
    d         America
    5.         Which one is not one of the four key external forces for change? (c)
    a         demographic characteristics
    b         technological advancements
    c         structural changes within organizations
    d         social and political pressures.
    6. The global firm  (c)
    a.        is the second stage in international development of a firm
    b.        is the best organizational structure for international businesses
    c.        requires intercultural business communication training at all levels
    d.        encourages healthy competition between domestic and international operations.
    7. An organization based on credentials  (a )
    a.        is most likely located in a high-context culture
    b.        emphasizes specific job qualifications of potential employees
    c.        encourages group orientation
    d.        trains employees in many different aspects of operations.
    8. An organization based on context  (c)
    a.        encourages consensus
    b.        emphasizes individual performance
    c.        is most likely in a low-context culture
    d.        encourages mobility of employees.
    9. In which of the following organizations are managers most likely to discuss confidential information with employees? (b)
    a.        organization based on context
    b.        organizations based on credentials
    c.        organizations based on political orientation
    d.        there is no difference between these forms
    10.        Intercultural business communication competence (c)
    a.        is only necessary in international businesses.
    b.        is not necessary in domestic businesses.
    c.        can be learned.
    d.              refers to speaking a foreign language.
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